# Getting to Higgs

## Excel Help

Add or Subtract Two Numbers In a new column, select the cell in the first row with data, type:
=
Click on the cell in that row with the first number:
+ (for add) or - (for subtract).
Click on the cell in that row with the second number.

Click on the check mark or hit return. The sum or difference should appear.
Use Edit, Fill, Down to apply that equation for the entire column of numbers.
(With our version of Excel, highlight the column beginning with the equation and going down alongside the column of numbers and fill down.)

Multiply or Divide Two Numbers In a new column, select the cell in the first row with data, type:
=
Click on the cell in that row with the first number:
* (for muliply) or / (for divide).
Click on the cell in that row with the second number.

Click on the check mark or hit return. The product or quotient should appear.
Use Edit, Fill, Down to apply that equation for the entire column of numbers.
(With our version of Excel, highlight the column beginning with the equation and going down alongside the column of numbers and fill down.)

Set Up an Equation To set up our equations, you need to know how to: Add, subtract, multiply and divide (see above).
Create an exponent: se the symbol ^ which is shift 6, e.g., 6*6 = 6^2.
Write scientific notation: just add E and the exponent e.g., 2E10.
Write two functions: SQRT( ) for square root and COS( ) for cosine.
Set up the equation in the first data cell of a column
Use Edit, Fill, Down to apply that equation for AN entire column of numbers.
(With our version of Excel, highlight the column beginning with the equation and going down alongside the column of numbers and fill down.)

Bin Data
Set up bins: Find the minimum and maximum values of your data and the total range. Pick a bin size that you want to use. Think small.
Choose the starting point so that the first bin is just below the minimum value of the range and the ending point just beyond the maximum value. Set up the first bin in the first data cell of the column. Use Edit, Fill, Series to create the bins. (In our version of Excel, highlight the column beginning with the bin size and going down far enough to cover the data range and fill down.)

Find frequency:

Choose Tools, Data Analysis, Histogram. If you do not see Data Analysis under Tools, your version of Excel probably needs an add-on that includes this option. Check with your teacher.
For Input Range, click, highlight, and drag the values in the column that has the data you want to bin.
The box should read something like this: \$K\$2:\$K\$1000 (depending on number of data cells).
For Bin Range, do the same except use the bin values.
The box should read something like this: \$M\$2:\$M\$52 (depending on how many bins you chose).
Click on New Worksheet, OK.
You should see a new page open up with two columns similar to the table on the right.
 Bin Frequency 20 3 22 13 120 2

Plot Histogram - Frequency vs. Bin Data

Highlight the frequency numbers and the values.

Click on the icon for Chart Wizard (looks like bar graph).

Choose Column.
Series: X values are bin values, Y is the frequency.
Place on new sheet and give it a name.

Create Scatter Plot with Error Bars - Frequency vs. Bin Data

Calculate the error of the frequencies: Put a title in cell C1.
The error is the square root of the frequency. Use the function SQRT () to set up the equation in the first data cell, C2.
Use Edit, Fill, Down to apply that equation for the column of frequencies.
(With our version of Excel, highlight the C column as far as the frequency values go and fill down from C2.)
Highlight the frequency numbers and the values.

Click on the icon for Chart Wizard (looks like bar graph).

Choose XY (Scatter).
Series: X values are bin values, Y is the frequency.
Place on new sheet and give it a name.

Click on a data point.
In Format Data Series, Patterns select the color you want for the dots and reduce the font size to 3.
in Y Error Bars, Display select both.
Choose Custom and highlight the column of error values. Paste into both the + and - boxes.
The box should read something like this: ='Z Mass'!\$C\$5:\$C\$80 (depending on number of data cells).

Fit Curve - Frequency vs. Bin Data